school based investments on access and financing of
secondary education in Homa-bay District, Kenya
Maurice A. Ndolo, Enose M.W.
Simatwa* and T.M.O. Ayodo
Department of Educational Management and Foundations, Maseno
Faculty of Education, Arts and Theology, Kabarak University
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
Received 28 November, 2011; Accepted 08 December, 2011
of Kenya is committed to the provision of quality education.
This is in accordance with the international conventions on
human rights, Education for All and Vision 2030. However,
the implementation of Free Primary Education and Free
Secondary Education weighs heavily on the exchequer. Homa
Bay District is characterized by high poverty level of 77.
5%, low income averaging between Kshs. 1000.00 and Kshs.
2000.00 a month and high Human Immune Virus and Acquired
Immunity Deficiency Syndrome education costs besides the
basic human needs. In view of this the government advised
institutions to establish new sources of finance aimed at
reducing financial burden currently weighing down on the
government. It was envisaged that exploring additional funds
from other sources like Income Generating Activities could
possibly increase access. The study sought to assess the
effects of school based income generating activities on
access and financing of secondary education between the
years 2000-2004. It employed cross sectional survey design.
A study sample of one District Education Officer, 33 head
teachers and 297 students was used. Questionnaires were used
as data collection tools. In order to ensure validity and
reliability, 4 (10%) of schools outside the study sample
were used in a pilot study. Descriptive statistics were used
to analyse Income Generating Activities effects on access
and financing of education in Homa Bay District. Study
findings revealed that the dominant Income Generating
Activities carried out were: Crop farming 41.4%, livestock
keeping 31.8% and brick making 12.3%. Further findings
revealed that profits from Income Generating Activities
lowered the overhead cost of education and subsequently
increased access. Income Generating Activities reportedly
made invaluable contribution towards secondary education.
Money generated was used to purchase learning materials and
provide physical facilities. Ministry of Education should
therefore formulate policies which encourage schools to
engage in varied Income Generating Activities to reduce
dependence government on financing secondary education.
Effects, school based investments, access, financing
secondary education, Homa-bay district, Kenya.